- Time of issue:2019-11-09 00:00:00
similoam substrate technology report
It is a kind of eco-environmental green management technology, which advocates restoring nature in a natural way. The core is to combine engineering, botany, soil science and other disciplines to quickly simulate the high performance similoam substrate structure suitable for plant growth in nature through bionic technology, which helps plant seed germination, root development, microbial activity and nutrient transformation, and promotes plant growth and development.
1. Technology Overview
The similoam substrate spraying technology advocates restoring nature in a natural way. It aims to use similoam substrate spraying technology to simulate the reshaping of the native soil structure, create the most suitable plant growth environment, optimize the ratio of trees and shrubs in the later plant community, and restore nature. Through the change of soil environment and plant community, it affects the surrounding habitat and achieves environmental effects such as permanent slope re-greening, soil and water conservation, elimination of potential geological disasters and improvement of regional climate.
2. Technology Principle
The core of similoam substrate spraying technology is to combine engineering, botany, soil science and other disciplines to quickly simulate a high performance similoam substrate structure suitable for plant growth in nature through bionic technology. The soil structure simulated by the similoam substrate greening technology has two main layers, namely the humus layer (fully weathered layer) and the leached layer (strongly weathered layer). This structure is stable and rich in humus, minerals, air, water, organic matter, etc. These substances exist in the soil matrix in solid, gaseous, and liquid forms, which are interconnected and mutually constrained, providing the most favorable standing conditions for plant growth on high and steep slopes and both biological protection.
3. Technical Advantages
3.1 Remodeling of the soil structure
The soil structure simulated by similoam substrate spraying technology has two main layers, one is the humus layer (fully weathered layer), which has the characteristics of loamy soil structure and is rich in humus, minerals, air, water, organic matter, etc. It promotes the activity of soil microorganisms, regulates soil acid-base reaction, and accelerates the growth of plant roots and above-ground parts. The seed growth process has the functions of heat absorption, soil loosening and water retention, which can effectively improve the soil structure. And due to animal and wind action, it makes the species diversity richer and the plant ecosystem formed more stable. The use of plant ecological communities, such as fallen leaves, dead grasses and other humus as a source of soil nutrients, so that natural minerals and organic compounds and trace elements are fully combined, combining multifunctional functions such as urease inhibition, nitrification inhibition, ammonia stabilization and plant growth regulation, and promoting plant growth with the extension of time.
The second is the leaching layer (strong weathering layer), the subgrade formed by the similoam substrate spraying technology can be seen as a flexible reinforced anchoring material, which can improve the cohesion and internal friction angle of the soil body and improve the mechanical properties of the original soil body. The instantaneous combination of substrate and seeds of spray seeding can tightly lock the surrounding soil media through expansion and improve the friction resistance between the surrounding soil, which can well restrain the soil deformation, enhance the integrity and stability of the composite soil body, form a high-strength scour resistance, and make the substrate better adhere to the bedrock of the mine slope. The ratio of substrate configuration and spraying time in similoam substrate spraying technology have a great influence on the overwintering rate and rejuvenation rate of plants. The company has formed excellent substrate ratios through many experiments, which can significantly improve the overwintering rate and rejuvenation rate of plants in arid and semi-arid regions.
3.2 Optimal control of the growth ratio of trees and shrubs
The traditional common spraying process generally has the problems of inconspicuous façade habitat improvement, simple community structure, rapid plant death and high maintenance cost. Generally in the early stage of ecological restoration, herbaceous plants grow vigorously, soil and water conservation has a certain effect, however, with the passage of time, the plant community will appear to decline, the re-greening vegetation tends to monoculture, and ultimately difficult to form a stable plant community. One of the main reasons for this is the inability to overcome the rapid growth rate of herbaceous plants, which occupy most of the community growth space and resources, eventually causing an imbalance in the combination of herbaceous, shrub and tree communities and a lack of diversity in plant communities.
A moderate combination of vegetation can improve the nutrient sustainability of the substrate itself. Through similoam substrate spraying technology, the ratio of trees and shrubs can be controlled within the range suitable for vegetation growth, which is conducive to the gradual development of each target plant type of herbs, shrubs and trees to a stable and reasonable distribution pattern in space and time, and effectively improve the scour resistance of slopes. Considering the proportion of legumes in the plant ration, the nitrogen fixing effect of legume rhizomes greatly improves the geotechnical properties of rocky slopes and provides the necessary conditions for plant growth.
The similoam substrate spraying technology also fully considers the effect of seeding density on the cover of the community, and a reasonable density can directly influence the community quantity characteristics and diversity change trend. The excellent ratio of trees and shrubs can create a good landscape complex structure of side slope sparse forest, with obvious seasonal changes and good landscape effect, while considering the seasonal deciduous can provide organic matter for plant growth, which is conducive to the formation of plant growth substrate in the rocky layer regreening area.
|Spraying diagram||Plant diversity selection and cultivation|
|similoam substrate||Posterior tree diameter at breast height map|
3.3 Effective erosion control performance
The similoam soil matrix is pliable and stable, with greater erosion control effectiveness, which can increase flow resistance and significantly reduce top soil loss and turbidity of sewage runoff. The plant growth has a forest canopy retention effect, which can effectively reduce soil erosion.
3.4 Excellent water-holding and water permeability
The soil matrix formed by the similoam substrate spraying technology contains rich pore structure and has excellent water holding and infiltration properties to meet the vegetation growth requirements. The increase in water content increases the soil water potential and facilitates water absorption by plants. The good water holding capacity is beneficial to improve the germination rate and faster community formation.
3.5 Wide range of terrain adaptability
similoam soil matrix spraying technology is highly adaptable to the terrain and has a wide range of slope applicability. It can effectively cover the soil on the slope, ensure the stability of the seed bed, and enhance the role of soil protection and seed consolidation.
3.6 100% biodegradable
similoam substrate is a high-performance flexible growth substrate, non-toxic and non-polluting, 100% biodegradable, will not cause secondary pollution to the environment, to achieve the efficient recycling of natural resources.
4. Applicable conditions
The technology can be applied in all regions. It can be applied to both soil and rocky slopes, and is mainly applicable to various types of slopes with slopes no greater than 73° and with good slope stability.
According to the characteristics of minerals and their main uses, mineral resources are divided into energy minerals, metal minerals, non-metal minerals and water and gas minerals. At present, similoam substrate can be applied to coal mines, petroleum mines, most of the open slopes formed after mining of metal mines and non-metal mines, collapse sites, tailing ponds, slag dumps, industrial and mining waste sites, etc.
5. Technology Applications
5.1 Coal Mining
The similoam soil matrix spraying technology can be applied to the lower slopes formed after the subsidence of coal mining collapsed land, coal gangue dumps.
（2）Ecological restoration of mining areas
The environmental pollution and ecological damage problems brought by coal mining are mainly manifested in the following aspects: ground water fall, misaligned sinking, water pollution, coal gangue occupation and weathering pollution problems, vegetation destruction, and secondary dust emission. In the process of treatment, we implement mountain sealing and forestation, adopt similoam soil matrix spraying technology to improve soil structure, enhance water and soil conservation capacity, promote the invasion and settlement of negative plants, and make the community structure more stable. Through the barrier effect of pioneer plants to reduce dust, combined with soil and water pollution management technology comprehensive management of environmental problems, to restore the original landscape. Realize the species diversity and structural diversity of the coal gangue dump ecosystem, and improve the self-sustaining and renewal power of the ecosystem.
similoam soil matrix spraying technology can be applied to remediate soil and groundwater contamination caused by oil extraction.
（2）Ecological restoration of mining areas
Oil contamination of soil is mainly due to soil salinization, reduction of soil permeability and changes in phosphorus and nitrogen ratio in soil organic matter. Plants play an important role in the removal of pollutants, both directly and indirectly. similoam soil substrates can improve and regulate soil aeration, oxygen, moisture and pH, and increase soil organic matter content. The accumulation of certain pollutants in plants, the transformation and mineralization of certain pollutants by plant metabolic processes, and the symbiotic relationship between plant rhizosphere and rhizomes to increase the activity of microorganisms are used to accelerate the rate of soil pollutant degradation so that plants can better degrade and stabilize polluted soils and achieve rapid remediation of polluted soils and good growth of vegetation. The multi-layer composite ecosystem of artificial plants is built with more resistant zonal pioneer trees, shrubs and grass species to simulate the natural ecosystem and form the law of succession, so as to finally achieve the visual integration of artificial vegetation with the surrounding terrain and ecological environment.
Metal ore mainly includes ferrous metal minerals such as iron and manganese ore, non-ferrous metal minerals such as copper and zinc ore, and precious metal minerals such as gold and silver ore. The similoam soil matrix spraying technology can be applied to the slopes of tailing ponds and slopes of collapsed land and abandoned land formed after the mining of metal mines.
（2）Ecological restoration of mining areas
Common environmental problems in metal mineral mining include land destruction, geological disasters, ecological damage and soil and groundwater pollution, which seriously affect the surrounding production and living environment and generate a lot of socio-economic problems, becoming an important obstacle limiting the sustainable development of local society and economy. According to the environmental resource status of the mining area, the ecological management system is designed according to local conditions. Soil remediation technology is used to remove soil and groundwater pollution after slope drainage, and the similoam soil spraying technology can effectively improve soil, maintain soil and water, store water, quickly restore vegetation, and achieve the environmental protection technology requirements of windproof and sand fixation and greening and beautification. The selected pioneer plants can absorb and purify pollutants such as heavy metals and organic matter in the soil, and continuously neutralize and improve the soil structure. The broken ecosystem is restored to its original function and the vegetation is restored to its natural state to achieve ecological balance.
5.4 Non-metallic ore
The main non-metallic ores are diamond, limestone, dolomite, quartzite, ceramic clay, refractory clay, marble, granite, phosphate ore, etc. The similoam soil matrix spraying technology can be applied to the slopes of tailing ponds and slag dumps in open quarries, industrial and mining waste sites, etc.
（2）Ecological restoration of mining areas
The tailing ponds and slag dumps formed after mining can cause environmental problems such as waste of land resources, water and soil erosion, sand and dust, landscape destruction and secondary disasters. Firstly, the slopes are drained to ensure geological safety, and then the soil is improved with similoam substrate spraying technology to restore vegetation, thus changing the environmental conditions of abandoned mines, increasing habitat heterogeneity and causing dynamic process changes in the community structure itself. With the growth and development of the planted trees, the original surface environmental conditions of the abandoned mine will be gradually improved, the wind will be prevented and the soil will be fixed, the regional atmosphere will be purified, the species diversity of the mine woodland will be improved, and the goal of land restoration and ecological environment improvement will be finally achieved. The most important limiting factor for ecological restoration of abandoned industrial and mining land is soil fertility, and soil improvement and maturation must be carried out in the initial stage. Through the selection of plant species, combined with similoam substrate spraying technology to improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil structure, and increase soil organic matter content. The ecological community thus established will continue to evolve without artificial maintenance, and eventually achieve permanent re-greening to the original mountain appearance.
5.5 Typical cases
5.5.1 Wuxi Dongjiao Mountain Closed Mine Comprehensive Improvement Project
Dongjiao Mountain is located in Xishan District, Wuxi City. The original mountain is severely damaged, the rock surface of the mountain is unstable, and there are potential geological hazards. The project was completed in 2008, and after the treatment, the mountain restored the original mountain appearance and optimized the surrounding environment. It released about 2 square kilometers of public construction land that can be used for ecological recreation, country parks, etc.; it increased the per capita public green space index in Anzhen area. The treatment area has now become part of the construction land and ecological life park, of which the ecological park has become a preferred place for short-distance travel for residents of Wuxi and surrounding cities.
5.5.2 Dexing Copper Mine No.4 Tailings Storage Ecological Treatment Project
In response to the environmental problems of land destruction, ecological damage and soil pollution in copper mines, the mining land is treated with similoam substrate spraying technology, using green plants and their related microorganisms, soil additives and agronomic techniques to remove, trap or render harmless the pollutants in the soil. Phytoremediation technology is low-input and can change the original landscape and form a new ecological environment, with significant treatment effects.
6. Comprehensive benefits and industrial extension
After the ecological environment is improved, ecological industrial projects will be developed according to local conditions, including forest oxygen bars, mountain parks, retirement industry, planting and breeding, ecological agriculture, wetland parks, real estate, comprehensive plazas, tourism, etc., in conjunction with the geographic environment around the treatment area.
Combined with the surrounding resources, it creates an ecological and cultural scenic spot in the national forest park, realizes the healthy and benign development of the forest ecosystem, and makes it a public welfare forest park with typical forest scientific research, propaganda and education, and forest health care functions. Eco-agricultural reclamation is an eco-agricultural type that realizes comprehensive management of agriculture-fishery-poultry-livestock by applying land reclamation engineering technology and ecological technology and carrying out three-dimensional planting, breeding and processing industry reclamation through reasonable configuration of agricultural plants, animals and microorganisms, based on the principles of ecology and ecological economics. Taking creative leisure agriculture as the benchmark, we tap local cultural resources and integrate the concept of cultural creativity to create ecological scenic creative agriculture. Ecotourism takes landscape agroforestry crop planting as the keynote, combined with the cultivation and display of four-season flowering, forest fruits and seedlings, supporting sightseeing, leisure, catering, accommodation, shopping, entertainment and other service facilities, and establishing a comprehensive sightseeing project integrating scientific and technological incubation, brand operation and industrial development. For the more typical collapse area water and land exchange complementary material cycle type, make full use of the collapse area to form the characteristics of waterlogging, to create lakes, wetlands landscape. According to local conditions, it is not easy to develop mine geopark in waterlogged collapse area, and create a new economic development platform integrating history, geology, mining, ecology, leisure, tourism and science popularization, such as building coal mine production relic area, pithead power station area, governance and restoration demonstration area, coalfield science popularization education area and other projects.
Ecological restoration integrates tourism, sightseeing, recreation and culture, which helps to solve the contradiction between local economic development and environmental management, improve productivity, coordinate ecological and economic benefits, and achieve sustainable development of the region.
|Forest Oxygen Bar, Carbon Sink||Wetlands||Real Estate||Comprehensive Plaza|
|Travel||Senior Care Industry||Pung San Park||Ecological agriculture|
Jiangsu LVYAN Ecological Technology Co., LTD.